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Clinical research

Research Papers that have helped us in our design process for our modular orthoses and improved our knowledge as clinicians

Subtaler Joint Axis Location and Rotational Equilibrium Theory of Foot Function

Kevin A. Kirby, DPM

A new theory of foot function based on the spatial location of the subtalar joint axis in relation to the weightbearing structures of the plantar foot is proposed. The theory relies on the concept of subtalar joint rotational equilibrium to explain how externally generated forces, such as ground reaction force, and internally generated forces, such as ligamentous and tendon tensile forces and joint compression forces, affect the mechanical behavior of the foot and lower extremity

JAPMA link

Efficacy of Foot Orthoses. What does the literature tell us?

KB Landorf and AM KeenanĀ 

This paper reviews the literature relating to foot orthoses, in particular foot orthoses that attempt to alter biomechanical function. Whilst few well-controlled studies have been performed, the findings from the available literature are generally positive


Sagittal plane biomechanics. American Diabetes Association

Howard Dananberg

During walking, the center of body mass must pass from behind the weightbearing foot to in front of it. For this to take place, the foot must function as a sagittal plane pivot. Because the range required for this motion is approximately five times as great as both frontal and transverse plane motion, its evaluation should become an essential part of a podiatric biomechanical assessment. Lack of proper sagittal plane motion and its sequelae are described.


Higher shoe-surface interaction is associated with doubling of lower extremity injury risk in football codes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Athol Thompson, Rob Whiteley, Chris Bleakley

Turning or cutting on a planted foot may be an important inciting event for lower limb injury, particularly when shoe-surface traction is high. We systematically reviewed the relationship between shoe-surface interaction and lower-extremity injury in football sports.

BMJ link

Turf Toe - Anatomy, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Jeremy J. McCormick and Robert B. Anderson

Despite an increasing awareness of turf toe injury, confusion still exists regarding the anatomy, mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of this hyperextension injury to the hallux metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint


Effects of hallux limitus on plantar foot pressure and foot kinematics during walking.

Van Gheluwe B1, Dananberg HJ, Hagman F, Vanstaen K.

The effects of hallux limitus on plantar foot pressure and foot kinematics have received limited attention in the literature. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the effects of limited first metatarsophalangeal joint mobility on plantar foot pressure. It was equally important to identify detection criteria based on plantar pressures and metatarsophalangeal joint kinematics, enabling differentiation between subjects affected by hallux limitus and people with normal hallux function